- There comes a point in every game which does not end in resignation (and regarding which, therefore, noone is arguing ends without capitulation) where any not completely new player will be able to tell that there are no more useful moves to make.
- At that point, both players have, in theory, perfect information as to the final score, and therefore who is the winner.
- (1, 2) There comes a point in every game which does not end in resignation where both players know, in theory, who the winner will be.
- One of the players will lose (with tie-breaking komi).
- (4, 3) If both players pass, one of the players who passed must know, in theory, that they will lose.
- (5) They are capitulating by passing.
- (1, 6) Every game ends in a capitulation by the losing player.
I think this is roughly the argument that @danielt1263 is making, and I don’t see why it’s particularly controversial.