So, there are sort of two ways to answer your question. I could talk about the opening, this specific position, and try to explain why the given answer is correct, and that might help, depending on the reasoning I use to justify the moves. Or I could talk about how to learn how to play in the opening.
The way that you learn to play the opening may be very different from the way that I, or others, learned. A teacher can try to impart principles, heuristics, sayings, etc. Those help, and are useful, but you may not truly improve until you start to grok on a deeper level, intuitively.
The opening, especially, involves a lot of intuition that is difficult to put into words (or an algorithm). And even when you have that memorized, it can be deceptively difficult to apply those heuristics in a real game, because they almost always involve exceptions and positional judgement.
So the question I want to try to answer is more about self-education. How can you teach your mind to understand? Unfortunately, the answer is really just a lot of practice. Now, there are ways to make your practice more efficient. For the opening especially, I think it’s useful to play games while focusing on specific themes/theories that you’ve learned about (from some other source, like a book or a review). Some examples: Strength and weakness of groups, surrounding your opponent while not being surrounded, splitting attacks, thick shape, etc.
Now, go play a game while using your current understanding. Try to apply it consistently, thinking before you move. After the game, review by yourself and see how things worked out. Try to identify a few key lessons/alterations to your current theory of the opening. Check with an AI or a strong player afterward if you are unsure, but the main point is to iteratively build your understanding. Repeat.
Here’s an example of how that might work:
Joe (1d) said cuts are good. After playing a game focusing on trying to cut your opponent, you notice that if your own cuts are unprotected, your cuts don’t tend to work out. So you update your heuristic to: Cutting and defending cuts are equally valuable.