Language Learners' Library

@discobot roll 1d99

:game_die: 33

Wait, that doesn’t work :stuck_out_tongue:

@discobot roll 1d9

:game_die: 6

The Script of the Day is Elbasan! (Seems like they don’t render on Firefox, though :expressionless: )

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When I look up on Wiki and the first sentence is:

In general linguistics, a reflexive pronoun , sometimes simply called a reflexive, is an anaphoric pronoun that must be coreferential with another nominal (its antecedent within the same clause.)

I see, you say I must first summon a helpful daemon with this spell and he will tell me what a reflexive pronoun is

Nah, they gave a clear explanation underneath so I can’t hate :wink:

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Just waiting for someone to finish editing the header, then I can get tidying. I’m going to delete my more off-topic posts and provide quick links to the past challenges and discussions.

Tidying starts now :slight_smile:

Can’t delete any more of my posts for two hours :expressionless: guess it’s time for link organisation

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Now, doesn’t the thread head look better?!


Would sure be nice if we could delete the discobots. And yes, it’s Chesterton, of course. They’re inside the Tardis in that scene.

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Time for today’s workouts. The Vocab Workout is about treasure.

Vocab Workout

In the pirates’ treasure chest are:

  • Silver and gold coins
  • Inscribed rings
  • Purple dye
  • Pearl necklaces
  • Cut rubies and amethysts
  • Goblets
  • Saffron
  • Indian diamonds
  • Jade elephants
  • Ancient scrolls
  • Conches

The Grammar Workout is all about the English word “through”.

Grammar Workout
  • I looked through the window.
  • The oar slid through the water.
  • The elephant smashed through the spear-wall.
  • The procession passed through the streets.
  • The flour filtered through the sieve.


bugcat's Latin solution (vocab and grammar)

In arca gazae pīrātārum est:

I. Monēta argentea et aurāria
II. Torquēs īnscrībus esse
III. Purpura
IV. Monīlia margarītārum
V. Gemmae rubrae* et amethystī sculptus esse

(* I can’t find a Classical Latin word for ruby, but they probably had one.)

VI. Scyphī
VII. Crocus
VIII. Adamantēs Indiae*

(* India is marked as Late Latin, but the region was well known in Classical times.)

IX. Elephantī lapidis nephriticī
Or perhaps: Elephantī lapidis viridis

(* There seems to be no single word for jade.)

X. Pergamēna antīcae
XI. Conchae

I. Per fenestram perspicī.
II. Per aquam rēmus illāborat.
III. Per mūrus tēlī elephantus irrumpit.
IV. Per viās pompa trādūcit.
V. Per cōlum farīna cōlus.

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Would you like the exercises to be:

  • More modern
  • More Japanese
  • Just the same

0 voters

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Ohhh, good grammar workout, this one is going to be hard!

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“Celtic collar rings writed be.” “Red gems and amethysts the cut be” What by Jove is that supposed to mean? Please explain, why you think a) the nominative singular masculine of the participles is appropriate, and b) why you feel the need to include an infinitive.
Please note my purposely bad “writed”.

Volumina antiqua works better. A volumen literally is “a rolled up thing”.

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Wiktionary gives torquis (root of torquēs) as “chaplet, collar, necklace, ring, wreath”. I figured I could use it in its fourth sense. Is there a better term for ring?

Then I looked at, where it says “Perfect passive: tēctus esse (“to have been covered”)” and used that as my base. I know, I have to go back to your post and read about the participles again – I must remember to inflect them! I’ll redo this since it’s clear I stil don’t understand (which is fine :slight_smile: )

Is there an infinitive there??

Also, thanks for the note about pergamēna.

You have it there: tectus esseto have been covered.” The “covered” part is only tectus. We call this form the Participle Perfect Passive, short PPP. The PPP, together with the forms of esse as auxiliary forms the passive voice of the perfect tense, much as in english. tectus sum “I have been covered”, tecti sumus “we have been covered” (or: I am covered, we are covered).

There is no Participle Perfect Active in Latin, but in Greek: pepaideukōs, ‘one, who has been educating’.
Latin has furthermore a Participle Present Active PPA corresponding to the english -ing form: laborans, -ntis “working”. Also, a Participle Future Active PFA: laboraturus, -i “about to work”.
You see how not all possibilities are explored in Latin. Greek has participles for all aspects (rather than tenses) and all voices.

I know torquis mostly from Celtic archeology, where it’s the neck-rings worn by nobles. A fingerring is an anulus.

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I couldn’t think of what to do now… so I’ve made a 100-Noun Mega-Challenge

Food: bread, fruit, soup, beef, pork, chicken, vegetables, cake, fish, honey

Drink: water, wine, beer, cider, whisky, juice, lemonade, tea, coffee, milk

Entertainment: music, dancer, jester, juggler, circus, tavern, brothel, stadium, theatre, play

Geography: city, town, port, road, river, mountain, hill, coast, plain, island

Transport: horse, ox, cart, litter, bicycle, car, train, plane, ship, ferry

The Sea: wave, seawater, gull, albatross, anchovy, tuna, squid, mussel, clam, coral

Hierarchy: emperor, king, nobleman, priest, merchant, servant, slave, criminal, prisoner, leper

Profession: butcher, baker, builder, cook, soldier, author, actor, scholar, painter, sculptor

Treasure: sapphire, emerald, ruby, amethyst, diamond, opal, jet, ivory, platinum, gold

Education: teacher, student, desk, pencil, pen, ink, chalk, lecture, exercise, knowledge

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English Nom. sg. Nom. pl. Gen. sg.
bread pānis n/a -is
fruit frūctus = =
soup iūs -ūra -ūris
beef būbula -ae =
pork petasiō -ōnes ōnis
chicken gallīna -ae =
vegetable holus -era -eris
cake crustulum -a
fish piscis -ēs -is
honey mel -la -lis
English Nom. sg. Nom. pl. Gen. sg.
water aqua -ae =
wine vīnum -a
beer cervesia -ae =
cider sīcera -ae =
whisky vischium -ia -iī
juice sūcus =
lemonade limonāta -ae =
tea thea -ae =
coffee cafea -ae =
milk lac n/a -tis
English Nom. sg. Nom. pl. Gen. sg.
music mūsica -ae =
dancer saltātor -ōrēs ōris
jester caulātor -ōrēs ōris
juggler aeruscātor -ōrēs ōris
circus circus =
tavern taberna -ae =
brothel stabulum -a
stadium stadium -a
theatre theātrum -a
play fābula -ae =
English Nom. sg. Nom. pl. Gen. sg.
city urbs -ēs -is
town mūnicipium -ia -iī
port portus -ūs =
road via -ae =
river flūmen -ina -inis
mountain mōns -tēs -tis
hill collis -ēs -is
coast ōra -ae =
plain campus
island īnsula -ae =
English Nom. sg. Nom. pl. Gen. sg.
horse equus =
ox bōs -vēs -vis
cart currus -ūs =
litter sella -ae =
bicycle birota -ae =
car autoraeda -ae =
train tramen -ina -inis
plane āeroplanum -a
ship nāvigium -ia
ferry pontō -ōnes -ōnis
The Sea
English Nom. sg. Nom. pl. Gen. sg.
wave unda -ae =
seawater mare -ia -is
gull larus =
albatross diomēdus* =
anchovy sardīna -ae =
tuna thunnus =
squid polypus =
mussel mūscellus =
clam pelōris -idēs -idis
coral corallium -ia -iī

(*) Improvisation from Diomedeidae, a taxonomic group

English Nom. sg. Nom. pl. Gen. sg.
emperor imperātor -ōrēs -ōris
king rex -gēs -gis
nobleman procer -rēs -ris
priest sacerdōs -ōtēs -ōtis
merchant mercātor -ōrēs -ōris
servant assecula -ae =
slave servus
criminal sōns -tēs -tis
prisoner captīvus =
leper leprōsus
English Nom. sg. Nom. pl. Gen. sg.
butcher lanius -iī =
baker pistor -ōrēs -ōris
cook coquus =
soldier mīlēs -itēs -itis
author condītor -ōrēs -ōris
actor artifex -icēs -icis
scholar scholasticus
painter pictor -ōrēs -ōris
sculptor sculptor -ōrēs -ōris
English Nom. sg. Nom. pl. Gen. sg.
sapphire sapphīrus =
emerald smaragdus =
ruby rubīnus =
amethyst amethystus
diamond adamās -antēs -antis
opal opalus =
jet gagātēs -ae =
ivory ebur -ora -oris
platinum platīnum -a
gold aurum -a
English Nom. sg. Nom. pl. Gen. sg.
teacher praeceptor -ōrēs -ōris
student discipulus =
desk pulpitum -a
pencil stilus =
pen as above
ink ātrāmentum -a
chalk calx -cēs -cis
lecture audītiō -ōnēs -ōnis
exercise exercitium -ia -iī
knowledge scienta -ae =