D14 is a ko which should be finished before ending the game. Whoever wins it can connect the ko. In territory scoring it’s about having or losing one capture, in area scoring it’s about having or losing two stones, as far as I know.
But in that example (diagram 9) black’s whole group is dead too:
If the game ends in this way, the black group and the white stone are both dead.
Maybe diagram 10 serves as an answer:
2. If a player whose stone has been captured in a ko has passed for that particular ko
, the situation for that ko is the same as if the game had been resumed: the player may now capture in that ko again.
So black lost a stone, black passed, white passed and black could retake if the game was resumed? That would make it clear that white has to connect (otherwise black can retake), and therefore it is not a point.
Disputes regarding unfinished ko seems to have played a rule in formal codification of the Japanese rules.
The modern rules essentially requires the kos to be resolved. Left as is, the stone at E14 would be considered dead (but not removed, since it does not reside within any territory), and neither player gets any territory points for that ko.
This particular shape is even weirder, as an example of “anti-seki”. If both players have passed, then both the lone White stone and the Black stones are considered dead, but none are removed for counting purposes.
An open and unconnected ko can never give a point to W as in the original position. The reason is simple (and need no complicated L/D reasoning):
B can simply pass, and if W doesn’t fill the ko B can retake it with his next move. (He can resume the game whenever necessary, like if W also passed and that caused a stop. On some servers like IGS the game only stops on three passes to make this easier.)
Indeed. I just artificially recreated this situation on the Beta website, and there was no problem there.
Upon resuming the game White should fill in, or Black should retake. That way neither can try to “cheat out” an extra point.
With area scoring, it actually doesn’t matter if the Ko is filled or not, so it wouldn’t be an issue. Rulesets with strict positional superko (that does not account for prisoners) usually use area scoring anyway.