You could start by just searching the word nickname on Sensei’s library. It doesn’t bring up one particular article, but some where the word nickname is used.
I don’t know and don’t particularly want to fact check all the nicknames myself but it could be a good start. (I’m sure being able to speak/read chinese, japanese, korean would help - as opposed to relying on only english translations/commentary.)
For instance on https://senseis.xmp.net/?SakataEio they say " He was called, the Inventor of Myoshu by Go Seigen and nicknamed, ‘the razor’ because of his fierce and brilliant moves during complex fights." - and it’s also mentioned him as “Razor-Sharp” Sakata in “Killer of Go” the book.
Kato Masao was supposedly known as (the) “Killer” according to wikipedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Masao_Kato, and nick sibicky and I thought I read something like this in a book too.
There’s other random things in senseis threads like here
“Takagawa Shukaku, in the fourth game of his ninth straight defense [sic] of the Honinbo title against Fujisawa Shuko (1960).
Takagawa, who was nicknamed “Wily Old Fox” (because he was believed to deliberately play bad moves every now and then to confuse the opponent)…”
I think in order to compile a list either trying to search through articles/profiles of players on sensei’s library, on wikipedia and looking at people reviewing their games (people who add in some background to the player preferably) might be the starting point.
There’s also a list of go players, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Go_players , which includes some nicknames for Eio Sakata, Masao Sugiuchi, and Masao Kato.